| | | | | | Digital Forgery | Photo Sharing | Digital Photographic Editing | Digital Forgery Activity | File Formats | Lossy and Lossless files | Image Processing Tools | Developments in Video Media | Will the Internet kill television? | Developments in Audio Media and Intellectual Property Issues | Developments in Video Media and Intellectual Property Issues - The case for and against YouTube | eBooks | Online Newspapers | Special Effects - Morphing and the world of the 'Virtual Actor' | PowerPoint Presentations | Gaming and Virtual Reality | The History of Gaming | The Impact of Gaming | Is the impact of gaming for real? | Addressing the problem | The future of Gaming

Digital Forgery

Digital Forgery is the use of manipulation software such as Adobe Photoshop to change the original piece of data e.g. a photograph. The ease with which photographic evidence can now be manipulated poses new challenges for society and the law. The use of software to create 'altered images' / 'doctored' photographs poses some interesting questions. In terms of social and ethical issues in ITGS, digital manipulation of media such as photographs, music and even TV raise issues of reliability i.e. how 'true' is the information that we are receiving?

Since it is possible to easily modify digital images, what are some of the ramifications of altering images to personally attack the credibility of another person? This type of attack can be classed as computer crime. Is it not possible to modify existing images and even movies to completely misrepresent a person's situation? What rights do we have? How might digital forgery relate to legal concerns related to pornography or intellectual property rights?
Are some digitally forged photographs more acceptable than others? If so, where do we draw the line? Consequently such questions lead us to consider issues related to policies and standards and also people and machines owing to the whether the using of this technology is appropriate.

Questions that need to be discussed are: -

  • What information technology has allowed us to manipulate images and sound?
  • Is it ethical to do so? If yes, is their a limit to what we should and should not do?
  • Has the usage of such technology now have people doubting what they are seeing?
  • Should we be allowed to alter images for the benefit of the people who view it?
  • Finally, how do we know that something is forged? In instances where forgery is an issue what solutions are there to the problem?

Can you spot the forged photos?

Forged or Not Photo Test

Rendering Synthetic Objects into Legacy Photographs from Kevin Karsch on Vimeo

Computer Crime: Attacks on People - Digital Forgery

Since it is possible to easily modify digital images, what are some of the ramifications of altering images to personally attack the credibility of another person?
Is it not possible to modify existing images and even movies to completely misrepresent a person's situation?
What rights How might digital forgery relate to legal concerns related to pornography or intellectual property rights?
Are some digitally forged photographs more acceptable than others? If so, where do we draw he line?

Photo Tampering Video

Part 1

Part 2

Articles relating to Digital Forgery

Photgraph Tampering throughout history
What's next for doctored photos
Five ways to spot a fake
Real of Fake news
Types of Photographic Fraud in the news
Pentagon linked to Digital Fraud
How to spot fake photos
Virtual Furnishing for Real Estate

Photo Sharing

What is Photo Sharing?

Photosharing has both advantages and disadvantages: -

Digital Photographic Editing

Photo Management Software
Basic Programs that are more about downloading photos from a camera, organising the files and a few editing features such as cropping and adjusting colour and contrast.

Image Processing Software
Advanced programs such as Adobe Photoshop allow the mainpulation of photographs in a far more complex manner. Digital imaging software allows the removal unwanted properties of the photo e.g. blemishes etc. These tasks were previously done with magnifying glasses and tiny brushes prior to the digitising of images. Image processing software goes a lot further, photos are not just retouched. Through this software we are able to modify images to the point of distorting them, applying special effects and fabricate the images. We also can now put together composite photographs by merging several images.

Digital Forgery Activity

File Formats

The type of file format is important when working with images as it influences storage, loading time and portability. Briefly, the three most common image file formats, the most important for general purposes today, are BMP, TIF, JPG and GIF. There is also the new PNG format too.


Loading Time

Known as JPEG a format (Joint Photographic Experts Group). Opens in web browsers or an image editing program. JPG is the best choice (smallest file) for photo images. JPG files are very small files for continuous tone photo images. It can achieve astounding compression ratios even while maintaining very high image quality. JPG works by analyzing images and discarding kinds of information that the eye is least likely to notice. JPG is poor for graphics compression owing to loss of image quality. Better graphics programs, however, such as Paint Shop Pro and Photoshop, allow you to view the image quality and file size as a function of compression level, so that you can conveniently choose the balance between quality and file size.
Depends on the size and resolution of the graphic

Opens images in Microsoft Paint or in other graphics programs. A bitmap image is an uncompressed raster image made up of a rectangular grid of pixels; each pixel is a different color (or level of gray for grayscale images), which together form an image; zooming in on a bitmap image will make it appear blocky since the size of each pixel increases. Use of this file type is now uncommon.
Depends on the size and resolution of the graphic
Usually quick

Stands for Tagged Image File. Other than on the Web, TIF file format is the undisputed leader when best quality is required, and TIF is very common in commercial printing or professional environments. TIF uses "lossless" compression i.e. compression that results in little or no loss of the image quality. Consequently, file sizes are quite big.
Depends on the size and resolution of the graphic
Can be slower than others owing to the size of the file

Stands for Graphics Interchange Format. Opens in a web browser or graphics program. GIF is most common for graphic images on the Web. GIF files (and other indexed color files) are good for graphics, but are poor for photos (too few colors possible). GIF creates a table of up to 256 colors from a pool of 16 million. If the image has fewer than 256 colors, GIF can render the image exactly. When the image contains many colors, software that creates the GIF uses any of several algorithms to approximate the colors in the image with the limited palette of 256 colors available. Thus a GIF file is only "lossless" when the image contains 256 colours or less.
Depends on the size and resolution of the graphic

Portable Network Graphics, PNG is also a lossless storage format. However, in contrast with common TIFF usage, it looks for patterns in the image that it can use to compress file size. The compression is exactly reversible, so the image is recovered exactly. PNG is superior to GIF. It produces smaller files and allows more colors.
Depends on the size and resolution of the graphic

Lossy and Lossless files

Image Processing Tools

Adobe Photoshop software has a variety of tools for image processing. This tutorial shows you some neat tricks.

Photoshop: Photoshop Tutorial: Adding Photo Elements

How to create fake UFO photographs: -

Developments in Video Media

Activity - use the link below to complete the table

Video File Formats

Video File Format
audio video interleave file
Compatible with multiple audio and video playing devices (Windows, Mac and Linux). Uses less compression than mpeg format, thus less lossy.
Player must have the right CODEC otherwise the video cannot be played
Quicktime Movie File
Played on Mac and PC. Easily edited. Choose the level of compression.
Not available on Linux. Must have Quicktime Player installed to be used.
moving picture experts group - layer 4
Main file type used for sharing video files across the Internet. Support by all systems and media players. Audio and video are recorded as separate layers, therefore allows you to compress either.
Lossy compression.
moving picture experts group - layer 1
Common. Separate audio and video layers. Good for distribution over Internet. Supported by all systems and players.
Lossy compression.
small web format
Used for flash animation. Supports vectors. Will play in a web browser when a flash plug-in is installed.
Cannot be played without Macromedia Flash Player
Windows Media Video
Can be burnt to DVD or Blu-Ray. Native to Windows - Windows Media Player to run it. Supports DRM.
Requires conversion for Mac e.g. Flip4Mac

Characteristics of a video that influence its quality: -

  • Aspect ratio - the way in which the image is portrayed on the screen e.g. 4:3, 16:9 - width to height ratio
  • Color space and bits per pixel - number of bits taken to be represented by one pixel. Greater colour can be used with more bits per pixel, however, this take up a fair amount of memory.
  • Number of frames per second - how many picture frames are run per second. Slower means lower quality.
  • Video resolution - horizontal and vertical lines of resolution - more is higher quality and higher price
  • Video recorder quality - frames per second, bit depth, megapixels, motion control
  • Video compression method (digital only) - what file format the video can be saved as
  • Bit rate (digital only) - the amount information that can be streamed at one time. Very important when downloading video.
  • Stereoscopic - assists in the production of 3D video.

Video basics 101

How video cameras work

A typical analog camcorder contains two basic parts:
  • A camera section, consisting of a CCD, lens and motors to handle the zoom, focus and aperture. The Charge Coupled Device (CCD) measures the intensity of light and the levels of each color of light in order to record the picture.
  • A Video Cassette Recorder (VCR) section, in which a typical TV VCR is shrunk down to fit in a much smaller space.

The camera component's function is to receive visual information and interpret it as an electronic video signal. The VCR component is exactly like the VCR connected to your television: It receives an electronic video signal and records it on video tape as magnetic patterns. A third component, the viewfinder, receives the video image as well, so you can see what you're shooting. Viewfinders are actually small, black-and-white or color televisions, but many modern camcorders also have larger full-color LCD screens.

A digital camcorder works in basically the same way, except that at this last stage an analog-to-digital converter samples the analog signal and turns the information into bytes of data (1s and 0s). The camcorder records these bytes on a storage medium, which could be, among other things, a tape, a hard disk or a DVD. Most of the digital camcorders on the market today actually use tapes (because they are less expensive), so they have a VCR component much like an analog camcorder's VCR. Instead of recording analog magnetic patterns, however, the tape head records binary code.

Digital Formats

Digital camcorders differ from analog camcorders in a few very important ways. They record information digitally, as bytes, which means the image can be reproduced without losing any image or audio quality. Digital video can also be downloaded to a computer, where you can edit it or post it on the Web. Another distinction is that digital video has a much better resolution than analog video, typically 500 lines. There are two consumer digital formats in widespread use:

  • MiniDV
  • Digital8
  • DVD
  • Memory Card

Source: http://electronics.howstuffworks.com/camcorder1.htm

How to produce video

iMovie Tutorials
Create video with Windows MovieMaker
1080i - what does this mean?
How to make a YouTube video

Will the Internet kill television?

Growth in streaming video sites on the Internet have allowed for TV programmes to be viewed anywhere and anytime if you have a laptop, mobile phone and an Internet connection. Sites such as Hulu, Joost and YouTube have become increasingly alternate entertainment options for people.

Peter Hirshberg on TV and the Web

Podcast from Tech Stuff by Hows Stuff Works

How streaming video works

TV vs. Internet: Internet wins
Online viewing up, impact on TV neglible
Is the Internet finally killing TV?
Internet's killing the TV star
Will Internet television kill the television star?
Watch free TV online: advantages
Top 7 benefits of live TV on the Internet
Pitfalls of online TV streaming
Streaming television online - the drawbacks

Some points for discussion:

  • What is online TV and video streaming?
  • Will the Internet kill television, what are the advantages of TV and video going online?
  • What are the drawbacks with online TV and video?
  • What are the potential future impacts on TV and video going online?

Developments in Audio Media and Intellectual Property Issues


external image 68859-insert-cd.jpg

CD stands for Compact Disk. They are an optical storage media used for storing music or other types of files. They was originally developed by Philips and Sony and hit the markets in 1982 (although the actual process of creating the CD began in 1979). When it was first introduced, the CD was mainly used for storing digital audio data. Then in June of 1985, the CD-ROM (had read-only memory) was introduced. Five years later, Sony and Philips also introduced the CD-Recordable. The CD was widely accepted as the evolution of the gramophone record. The CD gained huge popularity rather quickly as the price of CD players was relatively cheap. Many people also enjoyed listening to their music on the go.

Most CDs today have a storage capacity of 700 MB, which is roughly about 75 minutes of music or 783,216,000 bytes.
external image cd.gif

A CD’s physical state is much like that of a DVD’s. It is basically a piece of plastic (~1.2 millimeters thick). During manufacturing, little ‘bumps’ or ‘pits’ are molded onto the plastic and are arranged in a continuous, spiral track. On a CD, if you were to stretch the spiral track in a straight line, it would be 3.5 miles (5km) long. After the bumps are imprinted, a layer of aluminum is then placed on top of the plastic and then a thin acrylic layer is placed over the aluminum to protect it. When this is all complete, a label is printed on the acrylic layer.

For information on how CD's work click on the link below:
How Stuff Works - CD's


An MP3 is a digital audio file compressed with a standard defined by the Motion Pictures Experts Group (MPEG). MPEG was formed to develop techniques for dealing with digital video; since most video also contains audio, MP3 was developed as an audio extension of that work. Officially known as "MPEG-1, Layer 3", MP3 is a lossy compression algorithm that uses psychoacoustic modeling to reduce the size of audio files by up to 90%.

Psychoacoustics takes advantage of deficiencies in the human hearing system to throw away digital bits corresponding to sounds that cannot be heard. The human ear cannot hear soft sounds in the presence of loud sounds having a similar frequency; for example, a voice conversation becomes inaudible when a jet flies low overhead. This effect is known as auditory masking, and done correctly the discarded sounds will not be missed.

MP3 is a lossy algorithm in the sense that the original bits cannot be recreated from the compressed bits. In terms of hearing, however, MP3 is lossless because the human ear cannot distinguish between a CD recording and a properly encoded MP3 version of it. MP3s achieve this transparency at a bit rate of approximately 256 kilobits per second, or roughly one sixth of the 1.4 megabits per second required by the compact disc format.

MP3s can be recorded at lower bit rates, saving even more space, but audible differences begin to appear at rates below 128 kilobits per second. At these lower bit rates, MP3 can use a trick known as joint stereo to improve quality. Audio generally consists of left and right audio tracks. Joint stereo combines, whenever possible, the sounds common to both left and right tracks into one track. Instead of left and right, it has "common" and "different" channels.

P2P Networks

When most people hear the term "P2P", they think not of traditional peer networks, but rather peer to peer file sharing over the Internet. P2P file sharing systems have become the single most popular class of Internet applications in this decade.
A P2P network implements search and data transfer protocols above the Internet Protocol (IP). To access a P2P network, users simply download and install a suitable P2P client application.
Numerous P2P networks and P2P software applications exist. Some P2P applications work only with one P2P network, while others operate cross-network. Likewise, some P2P networks support only one application, while others support multiple applications.

With digital images, sound and presentations there are pertinent issues relating to the copying and modifying of text, images, sound and video (fair
use policies)

P2P Technologies and their associated issues

Digital Rights Management (DRM) Technologies

"Thin copyright" and "thick copyright" referring to different philosophies about copyright law.
Very briefly, thin copyright usually refers to a minimalist approach to copyright, giving works only as much protection as is needed to encourage creativity but with a goal of making works readily available to the public. Thick copyright is a more maximalist approach, and crudely put the goal of thick copyright is generally to maximize profits.

Thick copyright is the approach that record rpoducing companies such a Sony-BMG and EMI want to enforce in order to maximise their profits both for themselves and for their artists.

The creation of technological controls to protect digital works is referred to as Digital Rights Management, or DRM. DRM is not a single technology and it is not even a single philosophy. It refers to a broad range of technologies and standards to protect created artistic works, many of which are still in the planning and development stage. Essentially is builds on the principle of thick copyright, to take it further and guarantee absolute protection of creative works such a digital music recordings. DRM, therefore, would give artists and producers complete control over the work.

What is the motivation behind DRM?

Let me give you a simple illustration. Say I have a book, a hard copy book, that I have borrowed from the library. Maybe I would like to have a copy of my own. What prevents me from going down the street to a copy center and making myself a copy of the book? Well, it's copyright law that prevents me from doing that, isn't it?

In fact, that's not true at all. Copyright law does not prevent me from making the copy. It may make me feel a bit guilty about making the copy, or I might fear getting caught, but it doesn't prevent me from making the copy. Yet I am unlikely to copy the book. Why is that? Because I don't want to spend an hour and a half at a copy center opening the pages and punching the copy button. Because in the end the copy will cost me as much or more than buying a copy of the book in paperback. And because what I will end up with is a poor copy on bad paper in an 8.5x11 format, unbound. In the end, making a copy of a hard copy books is uneconomical, in terms of time and money, and the result is pretty undesirable.

Now let's say that I have the very same book in a digital format. If I want to make a copy, I can make that copy almost instantly. It will cost me nothing. And the end result will be a perfect copy of the original. Not only that, I can make one hundred or a thousand copies almost as easily as I can make one. I can email the file to everyone in my address book, or I can place the file on a peer-to-peer network and let anyone on the Internet have access to it. With the digital file, the economics are slanted very much toward making copies.

Note that the digital file is protected by the very same copyright law that the hard copy is, the one that doesn't really prevent us from making copies. What we have here is the Napster effect, which is based on the ease of copying. And because law doesn't seem to have worked as a preventive measure, there is some justification that only a technology-based protection will ever work to protect digital works.

Apple's Fair Play DRM Technology

About Fair Play
Steve Jobbs calls for loss of DRM
iTunes Plus

The development of Bittorrents

What are bittorrents?
What exactly is Bittorrent sharing?

Developments in Video Media and Intellectual Property Issues - The case for and against YouTube

Intellectual Property Issues with YouTube
Intellectual Property Issues with YouTube

Activity Worksheet -

What is Copyright?

Copyright Basics FAQ's

What is 'Fair Use'?

"Fair use is a copyright principle based on the belief that the public is entitled to freely use portions of copyrighted materials forpurposes of commentary and criticism. For example, if you wish to criticize a novelist, you should have the freedom to quote a portion of the novelist's work without asking permission. Absent this freedom, copyright owners could stifle any negative comments about their work.

Unfortunately, if the copyright owner disagrees with your fair use interpretation, the dispute will have to be resolved by courts or arbitration. If it's not a fair use, then you are infringing upon the rights of the copyright owner and may be liable for damages.

The only guidance is provided by a set of fair use factors outlined in the copyright law. These factors are weighed in each case to determine whether a use qualifies as a fair use. For example, one important factor is whether your use will deprive the copyright owner of income. Unfortunately, weighing the fair use factors is often quite subjective. For this reason, the fair use road map is often tricky to navigate."

Source: http://fairuse.stanford.edu

Determing what is 'Fair Use'

Why are the videos below considered 'Fair Use'?

defiant downloads rise from the underground

What are some of the issues surrounding 'Fair Use' on YouTube

What's Legal YouTube?
YouTube versus Warner - Does 'Fair Use' exist on YouTube?
Why 'Fair Use' suffers on YouTube
Journalist Tur sues Youtube

Who is right or wrong?

For YouTube videos: a 'Fair Use' boost
We're Google, so sue us

Solutions to the issue


The Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) is a United States copyright law that implements two 1996 treaties of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO). It criminalizes production and dissemination of technology, devices, or services intended to circumvent measures (commonly known as digital rights management or DRM) that control access to copyrighted works. It also criminalizes the act of circumventing an access control, whether or not there is actual infringement of copyright itself. In addition, the DMCA heightens the penalties for copyright infringement on the Internet.

Code of Best Practices in Fair Use for Online Video

YouTube tries a little harder to protect copyright holders
YouTube content management

Video discussing the issues of intellectual property protection and what we could do about it:

New problems

Video Piracy's New Battleground

In summary

Advantages of Social Media sites such as YouTube
  • Democratization of media.
  • Relationships and conversation.
  • Creativity and re-mix culture.
  • Embrace your passion and identity.
  • Community, sharing, and connecting.
  • Increase transparency in government and organizations.

Criticisms of Social Media sites such as YouTube
  • Copyright issues.
  • Lots of great content still gets overlooked. Current lack of good filters creates problems finding the best content.
  • Writers have problems delivering content consistently.
  • Anonymity can engender polarization and hate.
  • Information overload and social networking overload.
  • Work/Life balance is hard to achieve.


Amazon's 'Kindle' eReader
Amazon's 'Kindle' eReader

An eBook is an electronic version of a traditional print book that can be read by using a personal computer or by using an eBook reader. eBook's are purchased on CD or by purchasing a downloadable file of the eBook from a Web site (such as ebooks.com) to be read from the user's computer or reading device. Although it is not necessary to use a reader application or device in order to read an Ebook (most books can be read as PDF files), they are popular because they enable options similar to those of a paper book - readers can bookmark pages, make notes, highlight passages, and save selected text. In addition to these familiar possibilities, eBook readers also include built-in dictionaries, and alterable font sizes and styles.

Typically, an eBook reader hand-held device weighs from about twenty-two ounces to three or four pounds and can store from four thousand to over half a million pages of text and graphics. A popular feature is its back-lit screen (which makes reading in the dark possible). Some eBooks can be downloaded for free or at reduced cost, however, prices for many eBooks - especially bestsellers - are similar to those of hardcover books, and are sometimes higher. Most eBooks at Barnes and Noble, for example, are comparable in price to their traditional print versions.

An introduction to Amazon's 'Kindle' eReader

Key questions

  1. Watch the video on Amazon's 'Kindle' eBook reader and pick out the advantages of these devices.
  2. Listen to the podcast below and explain how both authors and publishers can be influenced in positive and negative ways by the development of eBooks
  3. Read the article below and explain why professors do not think that eBooks will catch on for some time yet

Podcast by Tech Stuff from How Stuff Works on How eBooks work

University Professors still unsure of the advantages of ebooks

Online Newspapers

The emergence of online newspapers such as BBC World News has created a whole new world of convenience for those people who wish to obtain the latest news stories.


The newspaper industry in decline

Charting US Newspaper decline

Is this the future of The New York Times?

Can design save the newspaper? Jacek Utko argues the case.

Intellectual Property Issues

Video Stores hit back at DVD Piracy

Special Effects - Morphing and the world of the 'Virtual Actor'

Morphing Women in Film:

Morphing gained a lot of its popularity from the movie Terminator 2 and Michael Jackson's hit song Black or White:
Black or White Video

How Morphing is done:

Virtual Humans in the Movies

Virtual Actor seeks actual credit for performances

PowerPoint Presentations

Present like Steve Jobbs:

Gaming and Virtual Reality

The History of Gaming

History of Gaming

Teenage Rebellion: Understanding Your Child's Gaming Habit

The Impact of Gaming

Modest evidence that video games cause violent behavioure
Children and Violent Video Games
Violent Videos cause Violent Behaviour
Emotional impact of video games
Computer game addiction
Is game addiction a mental disorder?

Is the impact of gaming for real?

Addressing the problem

Computer gaming standards
Impact of video games on children
Strategies for parents with childeren using video games
10 myths about the effect of video games on children
Game influence debated
Research divided on impact of gaming
More common sense about gaming

The future of Gaming

Future of gaming